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Subject Synopsis of Petroleum  Engineering Courses

SKPP 1313  Fundamental of Petroleum Engineering

This course covers six main areas.  Introduction: what is petroleum, history of oil in Malaysia. Geology and exploration: rock characteristics, rock types, oil and gas origin, oil and gas migration and accumulation, traps and exploration methods. Reservoir characteristics: petroleum physical properties, bulk volume, porosity, permeability, saturation and recovery factor concept. Drilling: rig types, drilling methods, drilling fluid, circulation system, rotary system, power system, hoisting system, vertical and directional drilling and drilling problems. Formation evaluation and well completion: coring, logging, drill stem test, casing and cementing, completion types and perforation. Production and transportation: natural flow and artificial flow, surface facilities, stimulation and transportation.

SKPP 2213  Basic Geoscience

This course comprises six main areas.  Earth physical & chemical characteristics: main parts of the earth & main earth characteristics. Minerals: natural elements & compounds, physical properties of minerals and classification of minerals. Rocks: group of rocks, igneous rock, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. Geological time: concept & geological time scale, fossil and fossil application. Surface processes: weathering, surface water & underground water and sediment transportation & deposition. Geological structure: mechanical deformation, stress and strain, fault, fold and joint.

SKPP 2313  Reservoir Rock and Fluids Properties

This course exposes students to the concepts and calculations of reservoir rock, gas, and liquid properties. Porosity: theory, measurement and rock compaction. Permeability: theory, absolute/effective permeability, permeability ratio and measurement. Fluid saturation. Electrical conductivity: resistivity relationship and measurement. Surface energy and Capillary pressure: basic, measurement and water saturation from capillary pressure. Basic concept of phase behaviour one, two and several components. Gas properties: ideal gas, real gas and gas viscosity. Liquid properties: volume behaviour, density, surface tension, liquid viscosity and vapour pressure. Two phase properties system: equilibrium relationship, equilibrium calculation and separation calculation. Reservoir fluid properties: gas formation volume factor, gas solubility, oil formation volume factor and two phase formation volume factor.

SKPP 2721  Geoscience Laboratory

This course enables students to understand better the theories they learned from the Basic Geoscience course. Mineral Properties: physical and chemical properties. Rocks identification: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Geological mapping: Brunton compass and map construction. Sand sieve analysis.

SKPP 2731  Reservoir Engineering Laboratory

The content of this laboratory works can assist students to understand better the theories they learned from the Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties course. Measurement of absolute permeability: gas permeameter and liquid permeameter. Measurement of viscosity: glass capillary, Brookfield apparatus and Kern balance. Measurement of porosity: helium porosimeter and Ruska pump apparatus. Measurement of relative permeability: core lab retorted. Measurement of density: gas density, hydrometer. Measurement of capillary pressure.

SKPP 3113  Evaluation and Management of Petroleum Projects

This course comprises Introduction: definition, effective money measurement, decision making process and several objectives & subjective in result analysis. Economic environment and cost concepts: supplies & demand law, cost concepts and selectivity in current economy. Time-money and interest relationship: cash flow monitoring, sign & cash flow diagram, inflation and conservation & capital cost. Project evaluation: methods, value measurement, alternatives that have different age, values reducing & evaluation, effect of income tax and replacement studies. Risk, uncertainty, sensitivity, and approximation: meeting, sensitivity analysis and decision making.  Capital: financial state terminology, capital requirement & oil company project handling, equipment purchasing & renting and Malaysian government & petroleum activities relationship.

SKPP 3123  Safety in Petroleum Engineering

The course presents fundamental principle of safety and risk assessment in petroleum engineering. In particular, it emphasizes on safety legislations, inherent safety design concept, methods of hazard identification, chemical health risk assessment and various methods of risk assessments. The course also covers health and environmental issues related to petroleum engineering. At the end of this course, it is expected that the students will be able to appreciate the theoretical and practical aspects of occupational safety and health in petroleum engineering. Students should also be able to use the techniques of hazard identification and risk assessment in the design and operation of petroleum engineering projects.

 SKPP 3213  Formation Evaluation

This course exposes students to electric logging: basic concept of reservoir resistivity, spontaneous potential and resistivity log. Radioactive log: basic concept of radioactivity, Gamma-ray log and neutron log & formation density log. Acoustic log: basic concept of elastic wave and acoustic log. Uses and evaluation: Archie’s equation, lithology determination, assessing the true formation resistivity and evaluating the hydrocarbon reserves. Miscellaneous logging Programme: Tixter approximation quick look interpretation technique, miscellaneous logs and computer aided log interpretation. Productivity test: overview and repeat formation tester.

SKPP 3223  Petroleum Geology

This course exposes the students to the relationship between the complex chemical mixture of organic compounds of hydrocarbon to the organic and inorganic theories of petroleum formation. Explanation will be given on the source rocks, the existence of kerogen, the concept of maturity of organic matter and the process of generation of petroleum. These aspects will be viewed in relation to the philosophy used in exploration activities. The topics on sedimentology and stratigraphy will also be included, to give the knowledge of reservoir rock characteristics and identifying areas of petroleum accumulation The processes of migration, entrapment of petroleum and types of sedimentary basins will also be discussed to give an idea of the locations and distribution of oil/gas fields around the world as well as its relationship with the zone of seismicity/earthquake.

SKPP 3313  Reservoir Engineering

This course covers Gas reservoir: gas in place calculation & volumetric recovery, material balance equation for gas reservoir. Condensate gas reservoir: phase diagrams & reservoir types, initial oil & gas calculation and reservoir performance. Non-saturated oil reservoir: reservoir volume, reservoir volumetric recovery. Oil reservoir under simultaneous drive solution gas drive, gas cap drive and water drive: gas cap & water drive reservoir, general material balance equation, application & limitation, steady state water drive estimation. Water influx: calculation model, calculation using material balance equation. Fluid flow: Darcy flow equation, fluid types & reservoir flow system, effect of different permeabilities, flow through cracks, fluid radial flow and PI, PR, damage zone & well stimulation.

SKPP 3413  Drilling Engineering

The drilling engineering courses comprises Basic drilling equipment: rig components and drilling string. Drilling fluids: functions, properties, testing equipment’s & techniques, classification, mixing & treatment, calculation and problems associated with drilling fluids. Drilling hydraulic: rheological model, pressure losses and nozzle bit selection. Deviated well drilling: vertical well drilling, deviated well drilling deviated well planning and directional survey. Well control: pressure relationship, abnormal pressure, fracture gradient prediction, kick and blow-out prevention equipment. Well abandonment: application and techniques.

SKPP 3423  Well Completion

This course consists of casing: function, types, casing string design and liner. Cementing: function, cement material & additive, testing of slurry and cementing techniques. Well completion practices: factors affecting well completion, types, tubing size selection, completion interval & well head installation. Tubing string, types & connections, design and tubing inspection, handling & installation. Production packer and tubing sealing assemblies: function, types, selection, effect of temperature & pressure and tubing sealing assemblies. Subsurface equipment: tubing auxiliaries equipment, production control equipment, communication equipment and subsurface safety valves. Perforating: types, evaluation of performance, factors affecting perforating and perforating proactive. Completion and work over fluid: selection criteria, types, perforating fluid and packer.

SKPP 3741  Drilling Engineering Laboratory

The content of this laboratory works exposes students to the determination of clay properties, weighting material, mud thinner material and filtration control agent in mud. Pollution in drilling mud. The study is emulsion mud and oil based mud. Effects of high temperature and high pressure on mud properties.

SKPP 3513  Petroleum Production Engineering

This course covers three main areas, normally surface facilities, gas lift design, and well performance evaluation.  Well performance: inflow performance relationship, vertical lift performance and choke performance. Gas lift: types, mechanical valve, installation types, design and evaluation. Surface facilities: flow control devices, dehydration, storage tanks, separator and flowing string & manifold.

SKPP 3921  Geology Field Work 

This course exposes students to the practical aspect of field geology, and introduce geology of Malaysia. Students will be trained how to make geological observations including simple geological mapping using the compass-step method.

SKPP 4313  Reservoir Simulation

This course covers the fundamental of numerical reservoir simulation which include the development of simple governing equation, partial differential flow model, finite difference approximation, study the error & stability analysis, Programmeming to reservoir simulator and the use of commercial simulator. The course is conducted by normal lectures and student individual /group project based on development of simple reservoir simulator.

SKPP 4323  Well Testing

This course covers introduction and principles of well testing, conventional and modern well test interpretation methods, effect of reservoir boundaries, reservoir aspects, well aspects, fluid aspects, interferences and pulse test, and well test design.

SKPP 4523  Gas Engineering

The course covers the relationship between upstream and downstream activities and the processes involve in the transporting, treating and measuring the gas.

SKPP 4812  Undergraduate Project 1

This course is designed to train students on some important aspects of research management. In the first part of the undergraduate research project course, the students are only required to carry out preliminary studies on the assigned petroleum engineering related topics but also to do research planning that will be implemented in the following semester. At the end of this course, students should be able to prepare a complete research proposal and subsequently present their proposal. In addition, students will have opportunity to gain important generic skills such as communication, team working, problem-solving and creative and critical thinking.

SKPP 4824  Undergraduate Project II

This course is continuation of the Undergraduate Project I. The second part of Undergraduate Project requires students to implement the research proposal that has been prepared in the previous semester. This might involve practical activities such as laboratory works, data collection from industry and computer Programmeming / simulation. At the end of the course, students should be able to prepare a full report compiling the first and second part of the Undergraduate Research Project and subsequently present their research findings. Finally, students must submit a bound thesis according to the UTM thesis-writing format. In addition, students will have opportunity to gain important generic skills such as communication, team working, problem-solving and creative and critical thinking.

SKPP 4834  Field Development Project

The objective of this course is to provide training, assignment and understanding of a particular development plan and profitability analysis on a particular gas or oil fields or both which are found either onshore or offshore. This project emphasizes on information preparation for management side so that hydrocarbon (oil or gas) can be produced commercially. Scope: The student will be provided with data from wild cat and several evaluation wells. The data which will be given are seismic data, well log, production testing and drill steam test. Technique and economy analysis will help to explain the followings:
1. Cumulative reserve and recoverable reserve.
2. Development plan, a. platform and facilities design determination, b. well design and drilling schedule and c. well completion design.
3. Reservoir drainage and management.
4. Production estimation and production profile.
5. Cash flow and profitability analysis. In the planning as well, every drilling and production design, high technology, safety, flexibility and economy must be taken into consideration.

A comprehensive FDP must consist of:
1. Geological aspects: top structure, cross sectional area, reservoir extension, porosity, permeability, lithology and reserve estimation.
2. Formation evaluation: logging data, log interpretation technique and reservoir parameter summary.
3. Reservoir engineering: PVT analysis report, well testing result and its analysis, permeability thickness, well parameter potential and recoverable reserve.
4. Drilling engineering: casing design, drilling Programme, well control and directional drilling Programme.
5. Production engineering: drainage policy, platform design and facilities, well completion design, and production estimation.
6. Economy evaluation: cost estimation, cash estimation, profitability analysis and sensitivity analysis.  All tables and figures must be included in the appendix.

Petroleum Engineering Elective Courses (SKP 4**3)

SKPP 4153  Petroleum Refining Technology

This course introduces the characteristics of crude oil and that each of the hydrocarbon compounds has its own boiling temperature. The principles of distillation are introduced leading to the separation into fractions according to cut points. Maximisations of cuts or fractions are achieved through processes like catalytic cracking, alkylation, catalytic reforming and hydro cracking. Gasoline blending is introduced to increase octane number for better performance and to provide designed vapour pressure in gasoline to cope with seasonal altitudinal needs.

SKPP 4163  Renewable Energy

The course covers the global energy supply-demand trend including Malaysia, oil and gas recovery from conventional and unconventional reserves, the origin of renewable energy flows, and the individual renewable energy sources. Pre-requisites: None.

SKPP 4253  Geophysics

This course introduces students with the introduction and application of applied geophysics in resource exploration and development, and pollution control. The course emphasis on the methods of geophysical techniques, especially seismic methods, including some of the modern interpretation techniques. It also discusses the general approach, equipment and field operations of the methods used. The course provides practice in carrying out a small-scale fieldwork project to investigate shallow geological features which are presumed to exist in the subsurface. Pre-requisites: SKPP2213.

SKPP 4333  Enhanced Oil Recovery

In this course, students are introduced to the important concepts, theories, and methods of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This course covers the general classification of EOR processes, microscopic displacement of multiphase fluids in porous media, the concept of mobilization and trapping of oil, mobility ratio and capillary number. Also included are the important concepts and operational procedures of various types of EOR methods such as polymer flooding, chemical flooding, miscible and immiscible gas flooding and thermal recovery processes. Pre-requisites: SKPP2313, SKPP3313.

SKPP 4343  Waterflooding

This course covers the waterflood technique to increase the oil recovery after natural depletion. The displacement and the entrapment of oil by water are also discussed, followed by prediction of the waterflood performance using various published methods. Pre-requisites: SKPP2313, SKPP3313.

SKPP 4413  Advanced Drilling Engineering

This course covers the special operations such as coring and fishing, identification of kick or blow out and methods of well control, advance drilling operations used in the industry, drilling optimization and procedures and legislation of well abandonment. Pre-requisites: SKPP3413.

SKPP 4423  Advanced Well Completion

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to prepare well space-out for single and dual completions. This course also exposes students to a safe slick line and completion operations, and preparation of a completion report after the respective well has been released to production and slick line report upon completion of its operation. The content delivered also covers deep sea completion and slick line operations, and completion in unconventional hydrocarbon energy sources. Pre-requisites: SKPP3423.

SKPP 4513  Well Diagnosis & Treatment

The course covers problem wells, diagnosis of problem wells, through tubing production tubing, formation damage, work over planning, sand control, and stimulation. Pre-requisites: SKPP3413.