Assoc. Prof. Ir. Dr. Malarvili Balakrishnan
Development of a human respiration carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement device remains a demanding research to evaluate the cardio-respiratory status of human beings since last decades. Hence, we report a real time, highly reliable, quantitative CO2 measurement device based on infrared CO2 sensor, Arduino Mega2560, and thin film transistor (TFT, 3.5”), incorporated with low pass (cut-off frequency,10Hz) and moving average (span,13) filters. The developed device measured the features such as partial end-tidal carbon dioxide, respiratory rate, inspired carbon dioxide and activity that annotated with a date and time received from real-time clock and stored into the secure digital (SD) card. Further, it was tested on 22 healthy subjects and performance (reliability and relationship) of each feature was established using, (1) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), (2) standard error measurement (SEM), (3) smallest detectable difference (SDD), and (4) Pearson’s correlation (r). The SEM, SDD, and ICC values for inter- and intra-rater reliability were less than 5% and more than 0.8, respectively. Besides, we found that PetCO2 and RR (r, -0.69) and RR and activity (r, – 0.65) are negatively while PetCO2 and activity (r, 0.84) are positively correlated. Thus simultaneous measurement of these features may assist clinicians in understanding the subject’s cardiopulmonary status.
Associate Professor Ir. Dr. Malarvili BalaKrishnan have acquired more than 10 years of experience in the academics as well as involvements in the biomedical industry. She received both the B. Eng and M. Eng (Biomedical Signal Processing) from Universiti Teknologi of Malaysia at Skudai, Johor, Malaysia in 2002 and 2004 respectively. She then obtained Doctor of Philosophy (Medical Sciences Engineering) from The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia in 2008. She became a lecturer at Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences Engineering. Her major highlight during this time is involvement in planning and designing new curriculum for biomedical engineering programme. The challenges and experiences with industry made her believe strongly in the value of interdisciplinary pursuits where engineering techniques and technologies from various disciplines such as electronics, mechanics, chemical and medical are utilized to address needs within the medical industries and healthcare services. Therefore, she founded Biosignal Processing Research Group (BSP-RG) in 2010 within the faculty to champion the research, development and commercialization of Biomedical Instrumentation.
Currently, Ir. Dr. Malarvili Bala Krishnan actively involved in research related to medical monitoring devices that focuses on detection of neonatal seizure, sudden cardiac death, implantable cardiac defibrillator receiver screening tool, fetal heart rate monitoring, asthma severity monitoring and many more. One particular project (device) titled “Respiratory CO2 Measurement for Monitoring Severity of Asthma” is under commercialization process in local market through collaboration with two big companies which are MIMOS Bhd and Infinecs Systems Sdn Bhd. To date, she has published more than 100 papers where 32 of them are scopus indexed and 17 of them are indexed with total impact factor of 27.71 approximately. She also received 5 international awards, 10 national awards and many more appreciation certificates. In addition, she has chaired sessions as chair person in prestigious conference, editorial board member and technical reviewer by IEEE, EMBS and medical society. She was recently selected for an ‘Outstanding Woman in Health and Medical Sciences’ award at the 4th Venus International Women Awards – VIWA 2019, Chennai, India.
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